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【2015高考模拟题】2015高考模拟题(五)

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一、单项填空(共15小题,每小题1分,满分15分)
1. ―Mom, Jack told me he wouldnt prepare us any gifts for this coming Christmas.
―.
A. Its a date B. Who wants
C. Its not big dealD. He has no sense
2. Such singers as Li Jian widely popular, of whose songs, however, some difficult to sing.
A. are; areB. is; is
C. are; isD. is; are
3. To the traditional engine of growth, we will focus on increasing the supply of public goods and services.
A. transportB. transmit
C. transformD. translate
4. The countrys Prime Ministers Office said on Wednesday that Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew remains ill in the ICU and his health has worsened further.
A. consciouslyB. critically
C. cruciallyD. confidentially
5. The rising tide of trade is good news for people who work in tradesensitive business, especially those that produce commodities global demand sets the price―agricultural goods, metals, oil.
A. whereB. that
C. on whichD. for which
6. To accomplish our goals, we aggressive and diligent in their daily work over the past year, the principal said.
A. had beenB. have been
C. wereD. are
7. China and Canada just reached an agreement on granting visas to each others citizens, with the period of up to 10 years, Foreign Minister Wang Yi said here Sunday.
A. vacancyB. facility
C. facultyD. validity
8. While not wishing to appear impolite, I ask you to leave so that I can make a private telephone call.
A. shouldB. must
C. couldD. might
9. Most men arent born great―they become great. , not everyone is the enthusiastic type that falls in love with their work.
A. AdditionallyB. Admittedly
C. SimilarlyD. Generally
10. along several city blocks is a row of trees, their leaves turning a brilliant yellow now that summer is over.
A. ExtendingB. Being extended
C. To be extendedD. Extended
11. The press noted that China has entered a “new normal” phase characterized by mediumhighlevel growth breakneck growth of previous years.
A. more thanB. other than
C. better thanD. rather than
12. President Xi Jinping expressed his gratitude to the public for their support, saying that without it, “we could not have achieved anything and I must give our great people ”.
A. the bottom lineB. a thumbs up
C. a big dealD. ring a bell 13. Our monitor couldnt help thinking he was when the head teacher asked him for some advice on how to strengthen class management.
A. somethingB. anything
C. anybodyD. everybody
14. Your sister may not take your advice seriously if you do not it with a warning.
A. uniteB. concern
C. accompanyD. equip
15. Wed better all the advantages and disadvantages before we come to the final decision.
A. make upB. put up
C. add upD. pick up
二、完形填空(共20小题;每小题1分,满分20分)
My 16 with science probably started with a visit to a science museum when I was about seven or eight years old. My mother took me to visit a museum 17 in a building in New York City. I 18 that many of the 19 offered the opportunity to 20 them and observe various mechanical and electrical 21. My interest in science was soon further.
22 by popular science books that I found in the local library. I was 23 to books by Sir James Jeans. There were no particular24 who influenced my choice of 25 and I especially like the areas in which I have worked because it 26 mathematics and many scientific disciplines, physics, chemistry and the life science.
My family and close relatives have included many 27 people for many generations. Several spent their lives in the 28 arts, many in commercial arts. There29 had been a scientist in the family. My family was, nevertheless, very 30 of my interest in science and would have probably31 been very supportive if I had a different interest. We lived in a community in which most families had emigrated to the United States from Europe. There was a great 32 among these families for their children to become welleducated and have successful careers in their33 professions. The New York City school system was excellent when I was growing up and 34 many great opportunities to the children. I attended college at the City College of New York, a very fine school that 35 many leading intellectuals. Looking back, I felt very lucky and appreciated for the way I came along.
16. A. luckB. surprise
C. fascination D. interest
17. A. layB. placed
C. liedD. located
18. A. recognizeB. relate
C. recallD. retell
19. A. materialsB. exhibits
C. stuffD. displays
20. A. operateB. work
C. functionD. deal
21. A. featuresB. characters
C. dataD. application
22. A. StimulatedB. Raised 如何避免癫痫病带来的危害r> C. ArisenD. Taken 23. A. absorbedB. addicted
C. possessedD. attracted
24. A. colleagueB. classmates
C. individualsD. partners
25. A. jobsB. profession
C. fieldsD. behaviors
26. A. containsB. fills
C. consistsD. includes
27. A. artisticB. famous
C. scientificD. romantic
28. A. goodB. fine
C. specialD. professional
29. A. seldomB. not
C. neverD. scarcely
30. A. subjectiveB. supportive
C. favorableD. agreeable
31. A. tooB. rather
C. stillD. also
32. A. supplyB. want
C. demandD. desire
33. A. setB. chosen
C. decided D. given
34. A. affordedB. supported
C. givenD. accessed
35. A. appearedB. made
C. producedD. grew
三、阅读理解(共15小题,每题2分,满分30分)
A
One of the many crimes that climate scientists have been accused of lately is that they claim absolute certainty in a field of research fraught with uncertainty. Sure, the planet is warming, say skeptics, but thats happened throughout Earths history, long before humans were burning fossil fuels. So, how can we be sure this isnt just a natural phenomenon?
Yet a search shows that absolute certainty is notably absent. In the most recent document, for example, published in 2007, the authors write: “Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic (人为的) GHG (that is, humangenerated greenhouse gas) concentrations.”
If that doesnt sound definitive, its because, as the authors freely admit, it isnt: climate science continues to evolve as new evidence comes in. Indeed, back in 2006, even before the latest IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)report was complete, researchers in Britain were already planning to launch an update. Led by the U.K.s Met Office, the update, published March 5 in the journal Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, is based on more than 100 peerreviewed postIPCC studies. The new data may shift the evidence for climate change, but none of it weakens what the IPCC said three years ago.
By looking at a wide range of observations from all over the world, the Met Office study concludes that the fingerprint of human influence on climate is stronger than ever. Plenty of these climate effects had already been observed at the time of the 2007 IPCC report, including warming temperatures, shifts in rainfall (wet regions getting wetter, dry regions getting drier) and the increase in summer meltback of Arctic sea ice. Those patterns have continued, and in some cases gotten worse. Some entirely new observations have been recorded as well. In its 2007 report, the IPCC did not include the impact of Greenlands or Antarcticas melting glaciers in its estimate of future sealevel rise, saying it lacked sufficient data. But now the speedup of flow from these glaciers has been documented. And while the IPCC noted in 2007 that every continent had warmed throughout the 20th century except Antarctica, that continent has now been shown to be warming as well―very likely due to manmade influences, says a climate scientist.
36. By saying “...they claim absolute certainty in a field of research filled with uncertainty (Line 23, Para.1)”, the author means that some people may think .
A. climate scientists should be accused for their wrong theory
B. the research on climate change cant answer peoples question
C. the reason for climate change cant be explained with certainty
D. the climate change caused by global warming is sure to happen
37. What can we learn from the most recent document?
A. Human behaviors should be responsible for the temperature increase.
B. The rising temperatures affect the observation of the greenhouse gas.
C. It is certain that global warming will happen in the near future.
D. It is somewhat complicated to explain the reasons for global warming.
38. The update before the completion of the IPCC report mentioned in this passage is to .
A. demonstrate that evidence always comes up quickly
B. prove that climate science is not static
C. show that it is easier to collect evidence for global warming
D. state that no climate science can be said to be correct
39. We can infer from the end of passage that .
A. no sufficient data can support global warming
B. the speed of global warming is raised greatly
C. the report of IPCC is not as accurate as claimed
D. there is no continent that hasnt suffered from warming
B
Nearly 5,000 people below the age of 21 die because of excessive alcohol consumption each year. Oddly, this has triggered a new movement to lower the drinking age. In America, young people can vote, drive, marry divorce, hunt and go to war before alcohol is legally allowed to touch their lips. Many states once set their minimum drinkingage at 18. But in 1984 Ronald Reagan oversaw the passage of the “癫痫病的危害都有哪些呢21 law”, which requires states to set 21 as the minimum drinkingage or risk losing 10% their highway funds. Now campaigners want to move it back. In the past, states have been too financially timid to challenge the 21 law. But calls for change are growing louder. Two local judges in South Carolina recently ruled that banning 18to 20yearolds from drinking or possessing alcohol is unconstitutional. Public officials, including the former attorney general of South Dakota, have called the 21 law a failure. The aboutface of Morris Chafetz, a doctor who served on the commission that recommended increasing the drinkingage to 21, has also raised eyebrows. This week he called it the most regrettable decision of his career.
Supporters of existing status, including the organization Mothers Against Drunk Driving, say that the law has helped avoid thousands of deaths. But doubters point out that other countries, like Canada, have seen similar declines, even though their drinkingage is 18. They also argue that barring young people from drinking does not stop them from consuming alcohol: it just makes them drink more quickly.
John McCardell, former president of Middlebury College in Vermont, is part of the Amethyst Initiative, a group of educators who are pushing for 18yearolds to be allowed to drink. “Those who have graduated from high school, have a clean record and completed an alcoholeducation programme should qualify for a drinking license,” he says, “in the same way that people who go to driving school receive a license to operate a vehicle.”
This is not the first time that Americans have desired a change in alcohol policy during a period of economic distress. Franklin Roosevelt lifted prohibition in 1933 amid the trouble of a depression.
40. All the U.S. State governments used o follow the “21 law” because .
A. its passage was supervised by Reagan personally
B. most citizens believed that it was reasonable
C. they couldnt afford to take the financial risk
D. it took much time and money to get a law passed
41. In Canada, where the drinking age is 18, .
A. young people want to begin drinking at a lower age
B. people are increasingly doubtful about the “18 law”
C. fewer and fewer people support the “18 law”
D. fewer young people die from drunk driving
42. John McCardell suggests that .
A.18yearolds should learn for a license before they can drink
B. a drinking school should be opened for high school students
C. one should get a license before they can drink
D. any 18yearolds should be qualified to drink 43. What did Franklin Roosevelt do during the 1933 depression?
A. He lifted the trouble of a depression.
B. He changed the alcohol policy.
C. He decided to ban alcohol.
D. He desired a change in alcohol policy.
C
How does food affect mood and mind? The answer may lie in the chemistry of the brain and nervous system. Molecules called neurotransmitters (神经传递素) are chemical messengers. They carry a nerve impulse across the gap between nerve cells. The release of neurotransmitter molecules from one neuron and their attachment to receptor sites on another keep a nerve impulse moving.
Nerve impulses carry messages from the environment to the brain, for example, the pain you feel when you stub (踢碰) your toe. They also carry messages in the other direction, from the brain to the muscles. Thats why you back away from the obstacle that initiated the pain signal and exclaim, “Ouch!”
“Many neurotransmitters are built from the foods we eat,” says neuroscientist Eric Chudler of the University of Washington. Too little or too much of a particular nutrient in the diet can affect their production, Chudler says. For example, tryptophan from foods such as yogurt, milk, bananas, and eggs is required for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Phenylalanine from beets, almonds, eggs, meat, and grains goes into making the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dozens of neurotransmitters are known; hundreds may exist. Their effects depend on their amounts and where they work in the brain. The neurotransmitter serotonin, for example, is thought to produce feelings of calmness, relaxation, and contentment. Drugs that prevent it from being taken again (into the neuron that released it) are prescribed to treat depression. In at least some healthy, nondepressed people, carbohydrate foods seem to enhance serotonin production and produce similar effects. “It is the balance between different neurotransmitters that helps regulate mood,” Chudler says.
Proper nutrition may also enhance brainpower. Choline is a substance similar to the B vitamins. Its found in egg yolks, whole wheat, peanuts, milk, green peas, liver, beans, seafood, and soybeans. The brain uses it to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. To test the effects of choline on memory and learning, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave memo有什么方法治疗颠病ry tests to college students before increasing the amount of choline in their subjects diets. Later, they retested. On the average, memories were better, and the students learned a list of unrelated words more easily. 44. The function of neurotransmitters can be best compared to that of .
A. a transport vehicleB. a protective shield
C. a power plantD. a food factory
45. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology intended to find out .
A. how choline is produced out of foods
B. how choline is converted into acetylcholine
C. if the improvement of brainpower is related to choline
D. if the improvement of brainpower is related to proper diets
46. What is the message the author intends to convey?
A. The chemistry of the brain an nervous system.
B. The influence of foods on our food and mind.
C. The functions of neurotransmitters.
D. The importance of a balanced diet.
D
Cars and other road vehicles are the single main source of harmful nitrogen oxides.
Road transport remains the biggest source of harmful air pollution in the EU despite efforts to reduce emissions over the past decades.
A report published by the European Environment Agency (EE.) shows that it is the single main source of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and nonmethane volatile organic compounds.
It is also the second most important source of PM10 and PM2.5 particles.
As well as road transport, manufacturing industries, construction, the residential sector and agriculture are the main sources of air pollution in Europe today, the agency said.
The EEA said, “Particulate matter from sources such as vehicle exhausts and residential heating can affect the lungs and harm people of all ages, but it is known to pose an extra risk to those with existing heart and respiratory problems.”
“Air pollutants are also responsible for the acidification of forests and water ecosystems, and eutrophication of soils and waters―leading to a limited supply of oxygen in rivers and lakes.”
A spokesperson for campaign group T&E (the European Federation for Transport and Environment) told EDIE, “One of the key reasons that transport is still such a major cause of air pollution in Europe is because transport users rarely have to pay for the pollution they cause.”
“Currently Member States are forbidden from including pollution charges in road tolls.”
“The commission just last month proposed to change the rules, a move that we urge the Parliament and Ministers to support.”
“There are also some positive signs of change as London and a number of German cities have introduced low emission zones over the last year. But there is still a long way to go.” According to the report, nitrogen oxide emissions decreased by 35% between 1990 and 2006, although the rate of decrease was just 1.8% in the final year of that period.
Electricity and heat production remains the main source of sulphur oxides emissions, followed by manufacturing industries and construction sources.
In contrast, agricultural activities were responsible for the vast majority of ammonia emissions―livestock manure and fertilizers accounted for more than 90% of the emission.
47. In order to control air pollution in the past years, the EU has tried to .
A. impose strict laws on pollution control
B. cut down on the number of vehicles
C. restrict the sources of nitrogen oxides
D. trim the discharge of car exhausts
48. According to the EEA, what is the second most important source of PM10 and PM 2.5 particles?
A. It is resulted from air pollution.
B. Nitrogen oxide.
C. Road transport.
D. Organic compounds.
49. The campaign group T&E advocates that air pollution should be reduced by .
A. raising peoples awareness
B. imposing an economic stimulus
C. increasing government fundings
D. calling for international cooperation
50. The report published by the EEA is aimed at revealing .
A. the types of air pollutants
B. the effects of road transport
C. the measures against air pollution
D. the prospect of environment protection
四、任务型阅读(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分)
请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。注意:每个空格只填一个单词。
We tend to think appetite is the equivalent of the “empty” gauge (测量仪) on a dashboard: It lets you know youre low on fuel, so you stop to fill up. In practice, however, thats a better way of describing the mechanisms of hunger, which are different from those of appetite. Hunger is a biological drive to make sure you eat enough, while researchers say appetite has more to do with the choices we make based on learned desires. Appetite is a complex mix of body chemistry, habit, social behavior, and psychology thats difficult to manage. But the task isnt impossible, especially as researchers devote more attention to understanding the power of appetite and how to control it. Here are so癫痫怎样算控制me key tips for monitoring and controlling our appetite.
For many people, meals arent the reason we gain weight―its all the nibbling (咬) and snacking we do in between. Experts point out that much of this kind of eating has nothing to do with hunger. Rather, its boredom, or stress, or a learned habit independent of appetite (3:30 p.m.―time to get a snack at the vending machine!) Theres a simple antidote (解毒剂): Ask yourself, honestly, why you are putting food in your mouth. If you are not hungry, then stop. So if so much eating is about boredom, stress, or habit, what to do when you are bored, stressed, or in need of a habit? Easy: Take a walk. Put on music. Do a stretch routine. Go outside. Phone a friend. Read a favorite magazine. Whatever gives you pleasure and relaxation. If you can create a new routine to deal with the everyday challenges that doesnt involve food, you will make major strides toward losing weight.
When you wander into the kitchen at night, turn on all the lights. Research at the University of California, Irvine, suggests that you literally fell in the spotlight when youre brightly illuminated (照明). The added selfconsciousness and sense of being on display make you less likely to do things you shouldnt―like going on an ice cream bender (狂吃).
You wont find this advice in the National Library of Medicine, but when you feel weakwilled against your appetite, try pinching(捏) the small area just below the ears, which some experts claim is an appetite control point. Hold for about half a minute.
To eat less at meals and snack time, choose foods that studies find have a high satiety index (饱足指数)―meaning theyre significantly more satisfying than other foods. Surprisingly, even though fatty foods fill you up and provide pleasure, theyre not high scorers on the satiety scale because we tend to want more of them. Among the most satisfying foods: popcorn, jellybeans, potatoes, brown pasta, baked beans, grapes, and oranges.
五、书面表达(满分25分)
阅读下面短文,然后按要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文。
“He who bears the greatest hardship becomes the greatest man.” This idiom shows Chinese peoples traditional belief in the vital role that hardship plays in a persons life as they grow up. But today, as our lives have greatly improved, do we still need this socalled “hardship education”?
“We definitely do,” said Wang Weiqiong, mother of a 15yearold girl in Jiangxi. “Many children take everything for granted, as theyve never known how difficult it is to make money.”
Wang is not alone. According to a recent survey of 2,017 people done by China Youth Daily, 81.8 percent of the interviewees supported hardship education including experiencing life in poor areas, outdoor training, taking parttime jobs, and doing housework.
Qiao Yu, from Tianjin Foreign Languages School, also supports the idea. “Hardship helps us grow and be prepared for the difficulties of society,” said the 18yearold, who worked in a cake store this summer. But while it contributes to students development, “hardship education shouldnt be seen as simply making students suffer,” Sun Yunxiao, deputy director of the China Youth and Children Research Center told China Youth Daily. “It should follow teenagers growth.” Sun said that students could also do sports to learn to face difficulties, for doing sports can greatly strengthen their bodies and minds.
[写作内容]
1. 以约30个词概括上文的主要内容。
2. 以约120个词发表你对“吃苦教育”的看法,内容包括:
(1) 你对“吃苦教育”概念的理解;
(2) 支持或反对对青少年进行“吃苦教育”,并给出2~3点理由。
[写作要求]
1. 可以参照阅读材料的内容,但不得直接引用原文中的句子;
2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;
3. 不必写标题。
参考答案
一、1―5 DACBD6―10 ADBCA11―15 DBACC
二、16―20 CDCBA21―25 AADCB26―30 DABCB31―35 DDBAC
三、36―40 CBADC41―45 DABAC46―50 BDCBA
四、51. Control52. eating53. desires54. reasons55. meals
56. alternatives57. instead58. helpful59. pinching60. high
五、One possible version:
The Chinese have a traditional belief that hardships contribute to ones growth. A recent survey shows that many parents and students support it, but some experts are opposed to it. (30 words)
As is known, hardship education refers to all kinds of activities including community services, social practice, volunteer work and various sports, which allow teenagers to experience the difficulties of life and society, thus contributing to their growth.
In my eyes, with the fast development of our living standards, hardship education has become a must for the contemporary youth. For one thing, via hardship education, teenagers can enhance their overall quality such as courage and perseverance, and get better prepared for the future. For another thing, by participating in various activities, teenagers can build up their strength and develop surviving skills besides written knowledge.
To sum up, society, school and families should attach great importance to hardship education for all students. (120 words)
(作者:石勇,江苏省沭阳如东中学)

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